The associations that work with people from the LGTBI collective have spent years making estimates on the underreporting of situations of harassment, discrimination or violence based on sexual orientation or gender identity. This Wednesday, the State Federation of Lesbians, Gays, Trans, Bisexuals, Intersex and more has presented a survey, prepared by the consultancy 40db, which puts a figure on these calculations. In Spain, only 2 out of every 10 hate acts that occur are reported, in line with the calculations that had been made up to now.
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The report state of hate, presented on the occasion of the International Day against LGTBIphobia, provides data that allows us to put this invisibility of violence into context. 29% of those surveyed, from a sample of 800 people from the group, affirm that they have been harassed in the last five years; 27.5% indicate that they have been a victim of discrimination; and 8.6%, who have suffered some type of physical or sexual assault. According to CIS data, between 7% and 8% of the population is homosexual, bisexual, transsexual or intersex, which translated into gross numbers means that around one million people in Spain have suffered harassment and discrimination and that, at least 283,000 have been assaulted.
The survey also addresses other issues that could be related to the 80% of hate acts that are said to suffer, but are not reported. For example, the majority of people, 70.3%, avoid answering the reason why they do not inform the State security forces and bodies. The next percentage is 8.10% who affirm that “they did not think it was going to be of any use”. 8% did not give it importance; 6.9% did not do it because they did not have proof; 5.9% did not think of it; and 5.4% thought they would not be believed; the same percentage that did not do it out of shame.
There is no trust in the security forces
But there is another fact that draws attention. 70% of the people surveyed consider that the State security forces and bodies are little (43.4%) or not at all (26.3%) committed to the LGTBI collective. Only 4.5% believe that they are very committed, while 19.9% affirm that they are quite committed.
“I call on the Ministry of the Interior to sit down with the group, because we welcome the victims in our spaces and accompany them to the police station,” claimed the president of the Federation, Uge Sangil. Precisely, the number of people who say they have suffered a hate act and have gone to an entity is greater than the one who reports it to the police. 23.7% reported it to one of these resources. “The remedy has to be education, training and prevention with the state security forces and bodies and that the police schools do not take this issue like a maria”, Sangil has requested.
Regarding the perception of the evolution of discrimination, violence and hate speech, for which the survey also asks, there are slight differences. 27.1% consider that discrimination has worsened in recent years, compared to 34.7% who say that the situation has improved. In the case of violence, 33.1% affirm that it has worsened and 27.7% that it has reduced. These figures are practically similar with the responses on hate speech: 32.7% and 27.7%, respectively. Some data that comes to clarify what seemed obvious: “Hate speech is causing a considerable increase in hate crimes,” says the member of FELTBI+, Laura González.
“In 2018, with the irruption of Vox and the radicalization of the PP with its complicity with the extreme right, this hate speech against us has been created, our right to be is instrumentalized and our demand for self-determination to say who we are is used as merchandising of hate with impunity in our institutions, in Congress and in the Senate”, laments Sangil. “Since then, hate speech has radicalized and attacks against the group have been increasing, as revealed by the latest report from the Ministry of the Interior, which speaks of an increase of 70%,” he indicated.
The poorest suffer more hate
According to the 40db data for the FELGTB, hateful experiences have an age factor, but also income. In the case of discrimination, the relationship is inversely proportional to income. 35.1% of those who earn less than 1,000 euros suffer from it; 30.8% between 1,001 and 2,000 euros; 24.3% in the next tranche, up to 3,000 euros; and 18.7% with up to 4,000 euros of income; Those who charge more than that amount are not spared either, although only 13.4% say they suffer discrimination. Regarding harassment, the percentage is similar in the first two intervals, below 2,000 euros (around 32.5%), while the ladder remains above.
Regarding age, 71.1% of people under 35 years of age state that they have suffered some type of harassment; 68.2%, discrimination; and 20.5% some physical or sexual assault. “It is interesting and is consistent with what we already knew, that young people are more exposed to and at greater risk of violence,” explained the president of FELGTBI+, Ignacio Paredero. 60% of the population that has suffered attacks has done so in leisure settings, such as cafeterias, bars or nightclubs, but the bulk of these events continue to take place on the street, where 78.5% of people say they have suffered harassment harassed and 69% of those discriminated against and assaulted.
The situation is worrisome in schools, where 62.2% of the victims claim to have suffered attacks; discrimination 55.5%; and harassment 60.3%. “There is no education in diversity”, pointed out Sangil, who is committed to “inclusive training and education with the differences that exist in the human being”.