Saturday, September 25

Afghanistan, the failure of world security

Iraq, Libya and now Afghanistan reveal that the world security policy, directed by the North American administrations and NATO, is, since the self-dissolution of the Warsaw Pact in 1991, the only multinational security system that acts on the international scene surpassing the explicit mandate of the Charter of the United Nations.

The greatest effort, to avoid humanity the scourge of war, occurred at the end of the Second World War, when the allies who faced the German-Italian-Japanese axis, compromised a new international security system based on the Charter of the United Nations.

In his preamble he condensed his commitment: We the peoples of the United Nations resolved to preserve future generations from the scourge of war that twice during our lives has inflicted untold suffering on Humanity ……

And after the preamble, the bases of the new international law were articulated, which sought to avoid the horror and devastation that wars produce.

In chapter I, on Purposes and Principles, in article 2 it establishes: The Members of the Organization, in their international relations, shall refrain from resorting to the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other way incompatible with the Purposes of the United Nations.

Failure to comply with this basic principle by the different North American Administrations and NATO, since its intervention in Yugoslavia in 1999, has unleashed destabilization processes and armed conflicts in different areas of the world that should never have occurred had the Charter of Nations been respected. United.

In response to the Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in New York, the then President of the United States, George Bush, theorizing a new concept of security, that of the doctrine of positive aggression, By which the United States had the right to treat as terrorists those countries that allowed terrorist groups to be kept on their soil, it attacked Afghanistan together with the United Kingdom in October of that same year. To that military operation known as lasting freedom, NATO forces later joined in and in December drove the Taliban from power, retreating to rural areas or Pakistan. Hamid Karzai was selected at a conference in Bonn to head the Afghan Interim Administration and in the 2004 elections he was elected President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

According to Amnesty International, the 19 years of war have caused more than 150,000 deaths – almost 60,000 would be Afghan military and police – and 1.2 million displaced people.

To doctrine of positive aggression, Bush would later add the concept of preventive war by which it maintained that the United States could overthrow foreign regimes that represented a supposed threat to the interests of the United States. Preventive war was an argument used in Nuremberg (1945) by the defense of Nazi criminals trying to legitimize the invasion of Poland.

And with this false legitimation, the US attacked Iraq in March 2003.

The then Secretary General of the United Nations Kofi Annan stated in 2004: “From our point of view and the point of view of Letter from the ONU, [la guerra] it was illegal. “A war that, based on lies, has only served to destroy a country, set its welfare back 50 years, and justify the creation of the so-called Islamic State. A study by Johns Hopkins University, published in The Lancet magazine in 2006, it estimated 655,000 deaths caused by the war.Despite being the third largest oil exporter and one of the five countries with the largest reserves, the 39 million inhabitants cannot enjoy the living standards of exporting countries due to the devastation produced by the military intervention that left the majority of the population in poverty, without basic services such as electricity or drinking water and without a universal and effective health system.

After Afghanistan and Iraq, it was Libya’s turn in 2011.

In 2009, Libya ranked 49th in the Human Development Index (HDI) ranking, which takes into account three variables: long and healthy life, decent knowledge and standard of living. Life expectancy that year in Libya was 72.13 years, its mortality rate 4.7% and its per capita income was 6,112 euros.

With the 49th place in the HDI, it was at the head of the African countries, well above South Africa that ranked 118, Egypt with 112 or Morocco with 127.

But in 2011, mobilizations took place in Libya against then-President Gaddafi and these led to armed confrontations as France and Egypt provided weapons to the rebels with the consent of the United States.

The US, the UK and France became the rebel air force by bombing the positions of the Gaddafi government from March 19 and on March 31 NATO assumed joint command of operations in Libya.

The result is known: defeat of the government, extrajudicial execution, after Gaddafi was tortured, and Libya turned into a lawless territory, fragmented into various military groups, facing the eastern and western parts with respective support from different foreign countries.

And, as in Iraq, what this military intervention against the Gaddafi government hid was its oil and gas wealth and the largest water reserve in Africa.

Currently, and due to internal political chaos, Libya produces one million barrels of oil a day, half a million still below those produced under the Gaddafi government.

A decade of war and clashes between militias has ended the country’s infrastructure, it is estimated that the investment necessary to rebuild the country will amount to more than 380,000 million euros over the next five years, which will have to go to critical infrastructure such as energy supply , running water and telecommunications.

And now Afghanistan, after the withdrawal of the occupation troops, has been re-Talibanized, occupying the entire territory with little resistance, diluting the institutions of the government of President Ashraf Ghani, deserting its police and military forces and exiling President Ghani and his collaborators to Tajikistan

The failure of the United States and NATO in Afghanistan, as in Iraq or Libya, is the failure of a system that directly violates the Charter of the United Nations, against International Law by intervening against the integrity and independence of States.

It is true that there are many states in the world that do not comply with the most basic human rights, that in many Islamic states women are excluded from civil life, they cannot travel without authorization from a relative, they cannot drive or receive education or practice any profession. But that reality has to be resolved in each and every one of these states with international cooperation through the institutions of the United Nations.

The US and NATO are not responsible for these failures, but civil society and the international peace movement should assume the responsibility of contributing to the construction of an alternative to that security system based on progressive demilitarization and scrupulous respect for the Charter. of the United Nations.

NATO member governments should take note, assume their responsibilities for these failures and facilitate the dissolution of NATO to build a new human security system, without weapons of mass destruction, reducing national armies and military spending and research to give step to that new demilitarized system.

In any case, at the next NATO summit to be held in Spain in 2022 we will have the opportunity to remind you of this in the streets and squares.