Monday, October 18

COVID-19 vaccines: how many are the doses recommended by the WHO? | Digital Trends Spanish


Strengthening the process of the immunization process against COVID-19, increasing the doses for immunosuppressed and those over 60 years of age are part of the new guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO). If you are still not sure, we will explain how many are the doses of vaccines against COVID-19 recommended by WHO.

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In this summary table you will find the general information for each of the vaccines, according to the information of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) of the United Nations health agency, including the target population, the level of efficacy and the amount of suggested doses.

You should consider that the WHO guidelines are general guidelines, but it is possible that each country implements complementary measures. For example, the United States and Chile began the vaccination process in the second half of 2021 with a third dose for the majority of the population.

Vaccine Effectiveness
Population Dose
Recommended Reinforcement
immunosuppressed
Reinforcement
over 60 years old
Oxford / AstraZeneca 63.09% 18 years and over 2 Yes No
Janssen 66.90% 18 years and over 2 Yes No
Modern 94.10% 18 years and over 1 Yes No
Pfizer / BioNTech 95% 12 years and up 2 Yes No
Sinopharm 79% 18 years and over 2 Yes Yes
Sinovac / CoronaVac 51% 18 years and over 2 Yes Yes

Characteristics of WHO-approved vaccines

Below, we list the characteristics and recommendations for each of the vaccines that have received final or emergency approval from the WHO.

Oxford / AstraZeneca (AZD1222)

With an effectiveness of 63.09 percent in preventing symptomatic COVID-19, the WHO recommends applying the Oxford / AstraZeneca vaccine to those over 18 years of age – including those over 65 years – and people with high exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

According to the WHO, it is also safe for people with obesity, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease and diabetes, comorbidities that lead to an increased risk of severe COVID-19. Although studies are lacking, it is recommended for people with HIV, autoimmune or immunosuppressed diseases.

The health agency estimates that breastfeeding women can also receive the vaccine, without having to stop breastfeeding. However, in the case of pregnancies, it only recommends applying it when the benefits outweigh the risks.

The vaccine is not recommended for people with a history of severe allergic reactions to any component of the vaccine or for those under 18 years of age, pending further studies.

Characteristics

  • Effectiveness: 09% against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Longer intervals in the 8-12 week range are associated with greater efficacy.
  • Target audiences: health workers and older people.
  • Under 18 years: not recommended, pending studies.
  • Recommended dose: two doses intramuscularly (0.5 ml each) 8 to 12 weeks apart. A third dose was recommended for people with depressed immune systems.
  • Variants: WHO recommends it even if other variants of the virus are present in a country.

Janssen (Ad26.COV2.S)

With an effectiveness of up to 66.9 percent in preventing symptomatic COVID-19, the WHO recommends Janssen’s vaccine for those over 18 years of age and people at high risk of exposure, such as healthcare workers. Also in patients with obesity, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and diabetes, comorbidities that cause a greater risk; and people with HIV, although it warns that the immune response could be lower.

As for breastfeeding women, it is indicated for people with greater exposure to the virus (such as health workers) and suggests maintaining breastfeeding. It is not recommended during pregnancy, unless the benefits outweigh the risks.

The entity also does not suggest it for people with a history of severe allergic reactions to the components of the vaccine or for children under 18 years of age, pending further studies. In addition, anyone with a body temperature above 38.5ºC should postpone vaccination.

Characteristics

  • Effectiveness: 28 days after the dose, it showed an effectiveness of 66.9 percent against symptomatic COVID-19, 84.5% against severe disease and 93.1% of the need to require hospitalization.
  • Target audiences: over 18 years.
  • Under 18 years: not recommended, pending studies.
  • Recommended dose: one dose intramuscularly (0.5 ml), 14 days apart (before and after) with any other vaccine. A booster dose was recommended for people with depressed immune systems.
  • Variants: has shown effectiveness against variants B1.351 (identified in South Africa) and P.2 (identified in Brazil).

Modern (mRNA-1273)

With an effectiveness of up to 94.1 percent, the WHO recommends the Moderna vaccine for those over 18 years of age. It is also indicated for people with some of the risk-increasing comorbidities (chronic lung disease, significant heart disease, severe obesity, diabetes, liver disease).

The WHO recommends the use of the vaccine while breastfeeding, although in the case of pregnant women, only if the benefits outweigh the risks.

Although more studies are required for people who are immunosuppressed or living with HIV, WHO suggests that the app be accompanied by an information and counseling process.

The vaccine is not recommended for people with a history of severe allergic reactions to any component of the vaccine and for those under 18 years of age, pending further studies.

Characteristics

  • Effectiveness: 14 days after the second dose, it was 94.1% effective against symptomatic COVID-19.
  • Target audiences: over 18 years.
  • Under 18 years: not recommended, pending studies.
  • Recommended dose: two doses intramuscularly (0.5 ml), with an interval of up to 42 days. A third dose was recommended for people with depressed immune systems.
  • Variants: has shown effectiveness against variants B1.351 (identified in South Africa), P.2 (identified in Brazil), 1.1.7 and 501Y.V2.

Pfizer / BioNTech (BNT162b2)

The Pfizer / BioNTech vaccine, which is 95 percent effective against symptomatic COVID-19, is recommended by WHO for ages 12 and older, including those over 65.

It is considered safe and effective in people with various conditions associated with increased risk, such as hypertension, diabetes, asthma, lung, liver or kidney diseases, as well as stable and controlled chronic infections. Still

Although more studies are needed on its impact on immunosuppressed or HIV-positive people, the WHO says that its application must be accompanied by an information process.

The WHO also recommends it for breastfeeding women, while in pregnant women it states that it should only be used when the benefits outweigh the risks.

The agency recommends vaccination for those over 12 years of age, since for now there is no data to guarantee its effectiveness in minors of that age. Meanwhile, people with a history of severe allergic reactions to any component of the vaccine should not receive it.

Characteristics

  • Effectiveness: was 95% effective against symptomatic COVID-19.
  • Target audiences: over 12 years old.
  • Under 12 years: not recommended, pending studies.
  • Recommended dose: two doses intramuscularly (0.5 ml), with an interval of up to 21 to 28 days. A third dose was recommended for people with depressed immune systems.
  • Variants: has shown effectiveness against other variants of the virus.

Sinopharm (BIBP)

Sinopharm’s vaccine is 79 percent effective against symptomatic COVID-19. It is recommended for the population between 18 and 60 years old.

It suggests its application in breastfeeding women and people living with HIV. Although the latter were not part of the study, it is considered safe since it is a “non-replicating” vaccine.

As for pregnant women, it only recommends it in case the benefits outweigh the risks. However, as it is an inactivated vaccine with an adjuvant that has shown a “good safety profile” in other antidotes, the agency hopes it will be effective.

The antidote is not recommended for people with anaphylaxis to any component of the vaccine or if they have a body temperature above 38.5 ° C.

Characteristics

  • Effectiveness: 79% against symptomatic COVID-19.
  • Target audiences: over 18 years old and under 60 years old.
  • Under 18 years: not recommended, pending studies.
  • Recommended dose: two doses intramuscularly (0.5 ml), with an interval of 3 to 4 weeks. A third dose was recommended for those over 60 and people with depressed immune systems.
  • Variants: its efficacy has not been evaluated against variables of interest.

Sinovac / CoronaVac

The Coronavac vaccine, from the Chinese laboratory Sinovac, showed an efficacy of 51 percent against symptomatic COVID-19, according to trials conducted in Brazil. It is recommended for the population 18 years and 60 years. For older people, he suggests applying it only if it is accompanied by monitoring.

It is indicated for people with comorbidities, such as obesity, respiratory or cardiovascular diseases. Although they were not included in the studies, it is also considered safe for people with HIV.

Breastfeeding women can safely receive it, but data is still insufficient to support its use in pregnant women. Therefore, consider doing it only if the benefits outweigh the risks.

The antidote is not recommended for people with anaphylaxis to any component of the vaccine or if they have a body temperature above 38.5 ° C.

Characteristics

  • Effectiveness: 51% against symptomatic COVID-19; 100% against severe COVID-19 and 100% against hospitalization.
  • Target audiences: over 18 years.
  • Under 18 years: not recommended, pending studies.
  • Recommended dose: two doses intramuscularly (0.5 ml), with an interval of 2 to 4 weeks. A third dose was recommended for those over 60 and people with depressed immune systems.
  • Variants: has shown effectiveness against the P.1 and P.2 variants (both detected in Brazil).

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