MARTA TAFALLA, Philosophy in the face of the ecological crisis
The ecological crisis is the most serious problem we have, but we are self-deceived about its causes. We affirm that our role is to dominate nature and that the global warming we are causing is a mere technical error, which we will soon solve with engineering. However, the cause of the ecological crisis is a problem of coexistence.
This planet is inhabited by innumerable species of animals, plants, fungi, and microorganisms, which are intertwined in multiple ways, forming a biosphere brimming with fertility, diversity, and wonder. It is the way of living of each species that allows the others to also live; it is the joint, complementary and coordinated work of all of them that sustains life. Instead of integrating ourselves into this community and enjoying it, we have become obsessed with subduing and exploiting it. But if we do not learn to coexist with other species, there will be no way to stop the climatic chaos and the extermination of biodiversity that are already accelerating, nor will we find healthy, happy and exciting ways of life. Learning to live together implies the decrease in human activity so that other species can recover, since it is wildlife that knows how to regenerate degraded ecosystems, heal the biosphere and also give us lives worth living.
We need a radical paradigm shift, and philosophy can help us get out of anthropocentrism and articulate an ecological, ecofeminist, and animalist worldview. It is also philosophy that can accompany us in what should be our project for the future: degrowth, veganism and rewilding.
JORGE RIECHMANN, Symbioethics. Homo sapiens in the fabric of life
The most critical reflections on the current ecosocial crisis are often stigmatized with labels such as catastrophism either collapsism (the author of this volume has been made guilty of pachamamista lumpen-leninism Y apocalyptic malthusianism, among other niceties). Thus, both the need to analyze the catastrophic elements of the present situation and the more positive elaborations that are also proposed from those positions are ignored. Within this last section (positive proposals) we must place the book Symbioethics as an effort to move towards a intellectual and moral reform that, without abdicating analytical lucidity, provides tools for the cultural construction that we need. Gaia theory, above all, provides a good foundation for this construction in the Western world: good soil to raise ecosophies and cultures friendly to the Earth. «It is very true that the great miracle is nature itself, but man is still too young to realize it», wrote Joan Maragall. The kind of hope that can be anchored in these perspectives does not refer to the immediate, but instead it is strong and its roots go very deep. Riechmann’s symbioethics is the development of moral positions of compassionate love consistent with what in fact (ontologically) we are: holobionts on a symbiotic planet. It would be the moral aspect of a reflection that, in politics, has been articulated as barefoot ecosocialism. And it would be a question, as the brothers and sisters of the Latin American Agenda point out, of advancing “from the Great Homeland to the Greater Homeland”: Mother Earth.
CHRISTIAN MOYANO. ethics of rewilding
The notion of rewilding has gained popularity in recent years. Recovering wild nature is a commitment to mitigate phenomena such as climate change, the loss of biodiversity or the deterioration of ecosystems. But rewilding it is not in itself good or bad. There are different ways of understanding it and contexts in which to practice it, so to assess it morally, critical reflection is needed. Is it ethical to exterminate invasive species to prioritize the flourishing of an ecosystem? Is it justifiable to intensify and technologize human activities to leave nature more spaces without interference? Would we accept that genetic engineering is experimented with some species in order to undertake a de-extinction? If he rewilding It consists of letting nature manage itself. Should we help a wild animal that is suffering? These are not dichotomous questions that can be answered with a simple yes or no, but rather require a deep and multidimensional investigation of the problem they pose. Put in the moral balance the benefits and harms of rewilding It implies attending to the latest scientific research and raising a whole philosophical debate. In a world charged with a plurality of attitudes and behaviors towards the wild, an ethic of the rewilding.